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Ten Years of Cambodia's Geographical Indications Law

In January 2014, Cambodia made a historic move to protect and celebrate its rich cultural and agricultural heritage by enacting the Law on Geographical Indications. As we commemorate the ten-year anniversary of this significant legislation, we'll consider the benefits of geographical indications, the registration procedures, and the products already registered, as well as those currently under consideration by the Ministry of Commerce.

Benefits of Geographical Indications

Geographical Indications (GIs) are a powerful tool for protecting and promoting products that have a strong connection to a specific geographical area. They serve as a stamp of authenticity, assuring consumers of the product's quality and unique characteristics while offering numerous advantages to producers and communities. A few of the key benefits are:

  1. Preservation of Tradition: GIs safeguard traditional knowledge, craftsmanship, and cultural heritage associated with specific regions, ensuring that time-honored practices continue to thrive.

  2. Quality Assurance: Consumers can trust the authenticity and quality of GI products, as they adhere to strict geographical and quality standards.

  3. Market Access: GI recognition opens doors to new markets and increases market access for producers, boosting local and national economies.

  4. Rural Development: GIs empower local communities by creating jobs, increasing income for producers, and stimulating economic growth in rural areas.

  5. Sustainable Agriculture: GIs promote the preservation of the natural environment and sustainable agricultural practices, contributing to long-term ecological balance.

Registration Procedures

The process of registering a Geographical Indication involves several crucial steps to ensure that the product's origin, quality, and uniqueness are properly documented and protected.

The initial step in pursuing a Geographical Indication involves establishing a Geographical Indication Association in coordination with the Ministry of Interior. Parties interested in obtaining a GI, such as producer groups, operators, institutions, and other stakeholders, are required to create a nonprofit association and submit its constitution to the Ministry of Commerce. Importantly, it is the association itself, rather than its individual members, that acts as the applicant and holder of the GI.

Beyond the application and ownership, the association's primary responsibility is to ensure its members adhere to the specifications outlined in the guidelines and comply with all legal obligations.

Once the association is officially formed, the next step is to initiate the registration process by submitting an application to the Ministry of Commerce. This application should include a relevant government form in either Khmer or English, the book of specifications, a product sample, and proof of payment for the filing fee. Following the submission, the Ministry of Commerce conducts a review within 45 days to assess whether the application meets the necessary criteria. In cases where the application is found to be incomplete or lacking, the applicant has a six-month period to address the identified issues or respond to the Registrar; otherwise, the application will be considered abandoned.

Once the application is deemed complete, it enters the substantive examination phase. During this stage, the Ministry of Commerce thoroughly reviews the application to ensure the accuracy of the provided information and to confirm that the proposed indication aligns with legal standards. The indication must not violate any laws, contradict morality, religion, established customs, or public order, and it should not be misleading, confusing, or the name of a plant variety or animal breed, nor a generic term. The Ministry of Commerce may conduct on-site visits to the production site of the goods and may also request additional explanations or evidence from the applicant or interested parties. Additionally, experts may be consulted to provide advice, which will be considered in the final decision regarding the application.

Assuming the application successfully passes the substantive examination, the Ministry will proceed to officially register the GI and issue a certificate to the applicant. The GI's registration details will be published in the Official Gazette of the Ministry of Commerce within 30 days from the registration date, providing an opportunity for any concerned party to oppose the registration. Oppositions must be filed within 90 days of publication, citing specific grounds as outlined in Articles 4 (defining a GI) and 10 of the Law on Geographical Indications; otherwise, the registration becomes final.

Seven Registered Geographical Indications in Cambodia

Cambodia takes pride in its registered GIs, each representing a unique facet of its diverse culture and agriculture:

  1. Kampot Pepper: Grown in the Kampot and Kep provinces, Kampot Pepper is celebrated for its exquisite flavor and aroma.

  2. Kampong Speu Palm Sugar: Kampong Speu Palm Sugar, made from the sap of sugar palm trees in Kampong Speu province, is known for its exceptional sweetness and quality.

  3. Koh Trung Pomelot This unique variety of pomelo is cultivated on the picturesque Koh Trung Island in the Mekong River, renowned for its succulent and aromatic fruit.

  4. Mondulkiri Wild Honey: Harvested from the lush forests of Mondulkiri province, Mondulkiri Wild Honey is prized for its distinct flavor and numerous health benefits.

  5. Kampot Salt and Salt Flower: Produced in Kampot province, Kampot Salt and Salt Flower are known for their exceptional purity and culinary versatility.

  6. Takeo Lobster: Renowned for its delicious taste and succulent texture, Takeo Lobster comes from the pristine waters of Takeo province.

  7. Kampot-Kep Fish Sauce: This traditional Cambodian condiment is carefully crafted in the Kampot and Kep regions, delivering a unique umami flavor to a wide range of dishes.

Four Potential Geographical Indications

As Cambodia marks a decade of GI protection, the Ministry of Commerce is considering the registration of four more products:

  1. Siem Reap Fish Prahok: Siem Reap, home to the iconic Angkor Wat temple complex, is known for its distinct fermented fish paste, "prahok."

  2. Khmer Silk: Cambodia's rich tradition of silk weaving is celebrated through the potential recognition of Khmer Silk, known for its intricate patterns and vibrant colors.

  3. Kampot Durian: The world-famous durian fruit grown in Kampot is poised to receive GI protection, ensuring its unique flavor and quality are preserved.

  4. Koh Kong Crabs: Koh Kong province's succulent and flavorful crabs are under consideration for GI status, further showcasing the region's seafood excellence.

As we reflect on the ten-year anniversary of Cambodia's Geographical Indications Law, we celebrate a decade of preserving tradition, protecting quality, and promoting sustainable agriculture. These remarkable products not only enrich Cambodian culture but also contribute to economic growth and rural development. With new registrations on the horizon, Cambodia continues to promote and protect its cultural treasures, ensuring their legacy for generations to come.

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